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This was a beehive- or barrel-shaped container of baked clay, usually divided into two by a central horizontal partition.
The lower section formed the fire-box in which were burned pieces of dried wood, foten taken from the Nile, or even dried animal dung.
The upper part, accessible from the top, was the baking chamber.
An oven of similar shape, but often constructed of hollowed stone instead of clay, was used by the early Jews.
619-620) "It seems that the discovery of ale was stimulated by the process of bread-making.
At some stage in the Neolithic era people had learned that if, instead of using ordinary grain, they used grain that had been sprouted and then dried, it made a bread that kept unusually well. The Egyptian process was to sprout the grain, dry it , crush it, mix it to a dough and partially bake it.
The loaves were then broken up and put to soak in water, where they were allowed to ferment for about a day before the liquor was strained off and considered ready for drinking." ---Food in History, Reay Tannahill [Three Rivers Press: New York] 1988 (p.48) "Leavening, according to one theory, was discovered when some yeast spores--the air is full of them, especially in a bakehouse that is also a brewery--drifted onto a dough that had been set aside for a while before baking; the dough would rise, not very much, perhaps, but enough to make the bread lighter and more appetizing than usual, and afterwards, as so often in the ancient world, inquiring minds set about the task of reproducing deliberately a process that had been discovered by accident.
bread yeast wheat flour rye flour maslin oatmeal semolina spelt ancient ovens Byzantine bread Chinese bread Colonial ovens Colonial bakeries Baking in America/Panschar French Revolution London prices Restaurant bread service anadama bread artisan breads bagels baguette banana nut bread bannock biscuits bishop's bread Boston brown bread brioche bread pudding bruschetta campaillou challah cheese straws ciabatta cinnamon rolls cinnamon toast cloverleaf rolls coffee cake colomba corn bread crackers cranberry bread crepes croissants croutons crumpets diet bread doughnuts Easter breads English muffins flatbreads flower pot bread focaccia National Loaf (UK) pain de campagne pain de mie pancakes panettone panforte panko paratha parbaked bread Parker House rolls Parthian bread pita popovers potato bread pretzel bread pretzels Pullman loaves pumpernickel pumpkin bread roti rye & Indian bread rye bread sandwich bread Sally Lunn salt rising bread scones Ship's biscuit sourdough stuffing & dressing tea cakes thirded bread toast tortillas waffles white bread whole wheat bread zucchini bread The history of bread and cake starts with Neolithic cooks and marches through time according to ingredient availability, advances in technology, economic conditions, socio-cultural influences, legal rights (Medieval guilds), and evolving taste. Variations in grain, thickness, shape, and texture varied from culture to culture.
Archaelogical evidence confirms yeast (both as leavening agent and for brewing ale) was used in Egypt as early as 4000 B. Food historians generally cite this date for the discovery of leavened bread and genesis of the brewing industry.